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Ladgasht, were given to Kharan. A few other date
groves farther north, including those of Muksotag, were
awarded to Persia.
As the cool season—in which alone surveying is
possible—was nearly over before the Commission started
work. Colonel Holdich decided to make the ranges
running down from Kuh-i-Malik-i-Sia, known as Kacha
Kuh and Kuh-i-Mirjawa, the boundary in the northern
section of the area. Any other arrangement would have
involved a second season's work, which would have been
very difficult to arrange. By this settlement the defini-
tion of the Persian frontier was completed from the port
of Guattar to Sistan, and, as the disputed Hashtadan Plain
in Khorasan had been delimited by General Maclean in
1891, the only gap which remains to-day is from the
south of the Hashtadan boundary, pillars to Sistan, a dis-
tance of perhaps two hundred miles/- >
The Second Sistan Arbitration Commission^ 1903—1905.—
In 1891 the Helmand began fo change its course, and when
I founded the Sistan Consulate in 1899 the main channel
of the river, termed the Rud-i-Penan br " River of the
Fairies," flowed considerably west of the channel which
General Goldsmid had accepted as the boundary. This
change necessitated the despatch of a second Arbitration
Commission, under Colonel (now Sir Henry) McMahon.
On this occasion the British representative was accompanied
by a strong escort, which placed him in a very different
position from that of Sir Frederic Goldsmid. The intri-
cate question was carefully and exhaustively studied under
the most trying extremes of heat and cold, and incident-
•ally considerable additions were made to our knowledge of
the geography of this corner of Asia. By the award the
boundary was made to run as before from Kuh-i-Malik-i-
Sia to the Band-t-Sistany the'chief dam, and thence along
the Helmand to the point at which the two branches were
formed. It followed the Nad Ali channel as before, but
the line, which ran approximately north in this section,
was laid down with greater precision than had been possible
in the case of the first Commission.
The Per so-Turkish Boundary.—In the west alone have